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Explanation of impossible blend

The goal of blending is to combine two colors. The general equation on a modern GPU is:



coefficient1 * color1 +/- coefficient2 * color2

Color1/Color 2 are either the source color or the destination color.
Coefficient1/Coefficient2 are either the alpha value (transparency) of source/source2/destination, 1 - alpha, or a constant. The GPU will clamp the coefficients to [0;1]

The general equation on the PS2 however is:



(Color1 - Color2) * Coefficient + Color3

Color1/Color2/Color3 are either the source or destination color or zero.

Coefficient is the alpha value (transparency) of the source or destination, or a constant.


The issues we have with this are as follows:
1. In the PS2, the coefficient factor could range from [0;2] (fortunately this almost never happens)
2. If Color3 and Color1 are the same source, the equation will be:


Color1 * (1+Coefficient) - Color2 *Coefficient

which will result in the first half of this equation always being larger than 1. This is a problem because the GPU is limited to 1. This is why this type of blending is impossible on the fixed function unit of a PC's GPU.

Our recent update fixed the second case. Since it is impossible to do that blending on the fixed function unit, we instead emulate them in the GPU's fragment shader. Fragment shaders are very small dedicated CPUs so it is quite easy to do a few small operations on them.

There is a catch however. Fragment shaders (like any CPU) are relatively slow. In order to compensate for this the fragments are executed out-of-order. For example, if you do a draw call consisting of 2 triangles, it is possible that the second triangle will be computed before the first one. It is quite annoying because blending is an in-order operation. However as long as primitives don't self overlap, only a single fragment shader must execute and therefore there is no issue with order.

Great. At this point we just need to split the draw calls into N draw calls without primitive overlap. It's not free performance wise to do this, but it remains reasonable in some cases.

Moving on, we need to access the destination value to compute the final value, however the GPU has a texture cache. The texture cache is read only so that there is no coherency issue. The target value can be written but all the subsequent reads will be wrong because of the discrepancy with the cache. Getting back to the input texture case, the texture is read only during the draw but this could change on the following draw. There must be a way to invalidate the cache if you upload a new texture to the same location. The driver has this ability, but until recently applications did not. GL 4.5 changes this. A function is provided to invalidate the cache Smile The end result is that we can implement basic blending in the fragment shader instead of relying on the limited GPU core.

Proofread and corrected by Blyss Sarania

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